Luther explained the symbolism of his crest in a letter written on July 8, 1530 as follows:
“The cross must come first, black and within a heart, which has its natural colour, so that I can be reminded that it is our faith in Christ crucified which makes us blessed and happy …. Such a heart should be placed in the centre of a white rose, to grant my faith joy, comfort and peace …. This is why the rose must be white and not red, as white is the colour of all spirits, souls and angels. Such a rose in turn is in the middle of a sky-coloured field symbolising heaven; my joy in faith is the beginning and my heavenly bliss is the future. The golden ring around the sky coloured field is a symbol of my eternal happiness in heaven, a bliss which is greater than all joy and possessions. It is gold as gold is the most precious and exquisite ore.”

1483 Martin Luther born at Eisleben on November 10
1497 Luther sent to school at Magdeburg at age thirteen
1501 Luther matriculated at Erfurt University at age seventeen
1503 pocket handkerchief comes into use
1505 Luther enters pcloister at Erfurt on July 17
1507 Luther ordained priest at age 23
1508 Michelangelo begins to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
1509 Prince of Wales becomes King Henry VIII of England
1512 Luther receives Doctor of Divinity degree at 28 and becomes Professor of Biblical Studies at Wittenberg
1514 pineapples arrive in Europe
1517 Luther sends letter of protest to Cardinal Albrecht and posts his 95 Theses against indulgences on the door of the Castle Church at Wittenberg.
Coffee introduced to Europe
1519 Zwingli begins preaching the Reformation in Switzerland
1520 Chocolate is introduced into Europe from Mexico
1522 Luther finished translation of the New Testament
1525 June 13 Luther married former nun Katharina Von Bora (1499-1552)
1526 Luther’s first child is born (Hans)
1528 Reformation begins in Scotland
Elizabeth, Luther’s second child, dies.
1532 sugar cane is cultivated in Brazil
1534 Luther, with staff, completes his translation of the German Bible.
1536 reformation is established in Denmark and Norway
William Tindale, English Reformer and translator of the Bible, burned at the stake
1538 Calvin is expelled from Geneva and settles in Strasbourg
1539 the first Christmas tree is set up in the Cathedral at Strasbourg
1541 Calvin returns to Geneva
John Knox leads Calvinist Reformation in Scotland
1543 Luther publishes his tract Against the Jews and Their Lies, and his lectures on Genesis.
1545 Martin Luther publishes – Against the Papacy at Rome Founded by the Devil
1546 Luther dies at Eisleben.
Michelangelo designs the Dome and undertakes completion of St. Peter’s Cathedral at Rome.


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